Study of Organic Aerosols at Riverside (SOAR) 2005



The Study of Organic Aerosols at Riverside (SOAR) was an EPA and CARB-funded field study of organic aerosol composition that took place in two phases: SOAR-1 July-Aug. 2005, and SOAR-2 in Oct.-Nov. 2005, on the campus of the University of California-Riverside. The purpose of this page is to serve as a repository of information about the study.

Some of the objectives of the SOAR study were:

  1. The characterization of the composition and sources of the ambient organic aerosol by a variety of state-of-the-art instrumentation and source apportionment techniques.
  2. The intercomparison of several the organic analysis techniques as a way to better understand both the organic aerosol and the analysis techniques
  3. The field demonstration of some new instruments such as the high m/z resolution AMS, the Vacuum Ultraviolet Ionization (VUV) AMS, and the dual-channel Sunset EC/OC analyzer.
  4. The characterization of the quantification of the organic and total submicron aerosol by combining the data from many different instruments operating on different principles.
  5. The study of the closure between the light scattering, hygroscopicity, and cloud nucleation (CCN) measured aerosol properties, and those calculated from the aerosol composition and size distribution.

The email list has been set up to serve as the channel for communication between the participants of the study. Everyone in the table below should be subscribed to the list. Note that to avoid spam, only people subscribed to the list can send messages to it (and only from the address from which they are subscribed). If you want to remove yourself from the list, just send a message to with a blank subject and the following text in the body of the message: delete riverside05. You should receive a confirmation message shortly afterwards.

This page is maintained by Ken Docherty and Jose-Luis Jimenez. Please email us at and with any corrections or additions to this page.

Dates for SOAR-1


The LA area, and Riverside county specifically, are classed as the most polluted areas in the US for short term and long term PM by the American Lung Association.

The measurements took place in Paul Ziemann's lab at the Air Pollution Research Center of the University of California-Riverside. Paul is located in "Trailer 7", which is a building rather than a trailer, and is located between buildings 275 and 367, towards the southwest corner of the campus map. Here is a map of the UCR campus, as well as directions to the campus.

We carried out continuous ambient sampling for this period, plus selected runs in which we sampled from Paul's smog chamber at various stages of SOA reactions with different precursors.

Funding for the Study

This study was partially supported by EPA through STAR grants R831080, RD-83216101-0, and (maybe) R831077. EPA also funded the Southern California Supersite through grant R82735201. CARB funded the simultaneous CAP study through Contract No.98-316.

Journal Papers Focusing on / Including Results from SOAR

  1. Geller, M., S. Biswas, and C. Sioutas, Determination of Particle Effective Density in Urban Environments with a Differential Mobility Analyzer and Aerosol Particle Mass Analyzer, Aerosol Science and Technology, 40(9): 709-723, 2006. paper (March 5, 2006)

  2. Reemtsma T., A. These, P. Venkatachari, X. Xia, P.K. Hopke, A. Springer, M. Linschied, Identification of Fulvic Acids and Sulfated and Nitrated Analogues in Atmospheric Aerosol by Electrospray Ionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry, Analytical Chemistry, 78(24): 8299-8304, 2006. paper (October 2, 2006)

  3. Zhang, Q., J.L. Jimenez, M.R. Canagaratna, J.D. Allen, H. Coe, I. Ulbrich, M.R. Alfarra, A. Takami, A.M. Middlebrook, Y. Sun, K. Dzepina, E. Dunlea, K. Docherty, P.F. Decarlo, D. Salcedo, T. Onasch, J.T. Jayne, T. Miyoshi, A. Shimono, S. Hatakeyama, N. Takegawa, Y. Kondo, J. Schneider, F. Drewnick, S. Borrman, S. Weimer, K. Dermerjian, P. Williams, K. Bower, R. Bahreini, L. Cottrell, R.J. Griffin, J. Rautaininen, J.Y. Sun, Y.M. Zhang, and D. Worsnop, Ubiquity and Dominance of Oxygenated Species in Organic Aerosols in Anthropogenically-influenced Northern Hemisphere Midlatitudes, Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L13801, doi:10.1029, 2007. paper (October 2, 2006)
    Figures 1 & 2 in Powerpoint, and Data in Excel Format.

  4. DeCarlo P.F., J.R. Kimmel, A. Trimborn, M.J. Northway, J.T. Jayne, A.C. Aiken, M. Gonin, K. Fuhrer, T. Horvath, K.S. Docherty, D.R. Worsnop, and J.L. Jimenez, Field-Deployable, High-Resolution, Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Analytical Chemistry, 78(24): 8281-8289, 2006. paper (November 11, 2006)

  5. Spencer, M.T., L.G. Shields, and K.A. Prather, Simultaneous Measurement of the Effective Density and Chemical Composition of Ambient Aerosol Particles, Environmental Science & Technology, 41(4): 1303-1309, 2007. paper (January 17, 2007)

  6. Snyder, D.C. and J.J. Schauer, An Inter-Comparison of Two Black Carbon Aerosol Instruments and a Semi-Continuous Elemental Carbon Instrument in the Urban Environment, Aerosol Science and Technology, 41(5): 463-474, 2007. paper (May 1, 2007)

  7. Denkenberger, K.A., R.C. Moffet, J.C. Holecek, T.P. Rebotier, and K.A. Prather, Real-time, Single-particle Measurements of Oligomers in Aged Ambient Aerosol Particles, Environmental Science & Technology, 41(15): 5439-5446, 2007. paper (July 3, 2007)

  8. Eatough, D.J., B.D. Grover, W.R. Woolwine, N.L. Eatough, K.A. Prather, L.Shields, X.Qin, K.Denkenberger, R.Long, and R. Farber, Source apportionment of 1-hr semi-continuous data during the 2005 Study of Organic Aerosols in Riverside (SOAR) using positive matrix factorization, Atmospheric Environment, 42, 2706-2719, 2008. Paper (July 27, 2007)

  9. Grover, B.D., N.L. Eatough, W.R. Woolwine, J.P. Cannon, D.J. Eatough, R.W. Long, Semi-Continuous Mass Closure of the Major Components of Fine Particulate Matter in Riverside, CA, Atmospheric Environment, 42(2): 250-260, 2008. paper (September 15, 2007)

  10. Peltier, R.E., R.J. Weber, and A.P. Sullivan, Investigating a method for online OC detection with a Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler, Aerosol Science and Technology, 41(12): 1117-1127, 2007. paper (December 1, 2007)

  11. Shields, L.G.; X. Qin; S.M. Toner; K.A. Prather, Detection of Ambient Ultrafine Aerosols by Single Particle Techniques During the SOAR 2005 Campaign, Aerosol Science and Technology, 42(8): 674-684, 2008. paper (August 1, 2008)

  12. Moffet, R.C., X. Qin, T. Rebotier, H. Furutani, K.A. Prather, Chemically Segregated Optical and Microphysical Properties of Ambient Aerosols Measured in a Single Particle Mass Spectrometer, Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, D12213, doi:10.1029/2007JD009393. Paper (March 19, 2008)

  13. Cubison, M.J., B. Ervens, G. Feingold, K. Docherty, I. Ulbrich, L. Shields, K. Prather, S. Hering and J.L. Jimenez, The Influence of Chemical Composition and Mixing State of Los Angeles Urban Aerosol on CCN number and Cloud Properties, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 8, 5649-5667, 2008. Abstract and PDF (September 26, 2008)

  14. Snyder, D.S., T.R. Dallman, J.J. Schauer, T. Holloway, M.J. Kleeman, M.D. Geller, and C. Sioutas Direct Observation of the Break-up of a Nocturnal Inversion Layer using Elemental Mercury as a Tracer. Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L17812, doi:10.1029/2008GL034840. Paper

  15. Docherty, K.S., E.A. Stone, I.M. Ulbrich, P.F. DeCarlo, D.C. Snyder, J.J. Schauer, R.E. Peltier, R.J. Weber, S.M. Murphy, J.H. Seinfeld, D.J. Eatough, and J.L. Jimenez, Apportionment of Primary and Secondary Organic Aerosols in Southern California during the 2005 Study of Organic Aerosols in Riverside (SOAR). Environmental Science & Technology, 42, 7655–7662, doi: 10.1021/es8008166, 2008. PDF and Supp. Info.

  16. Lida, K., M.R. Stolzenburg, P.H. McMurray, J.N. Smith, F.R. Quant, D.R. Oberreit, P.B. Keady, A. Eiguren-Fernandez, G.S. Lewis, N.M. Kreisberg, and S.V. Hering. An Ultrafine, Water-Based Condensation Particle Counter and its Evaluation Under Field Conditions. Aerosol Science and Technology, 42(10), 862-871, 2008. Paper. (October 1, 2008)

  17. Kreisberg, N.M., S.V. Hering, B.J. Williams, D.R. Worton, and A.H. Goldstein. Quantification of Hourly Speciated Organic Compounds in Atmospheric Aerosols, Measured by an In-Situ Thermal Desorption Aerosol Gas Chromatograph (TAG). Aerosol Science and Technology, 43(1), 38-52, 2009. DOI: 10.1080/02786820802459583 Paper (January 1, 2009)

  18. Huffman, J.A., Docherty, K.S., Aiken, A.C., Cubison, M.J., Ulbrich, I.M., DeCarlo, P.F., Sueper, D., Jayne, J.T., Worsnop, D.R., Ziemann, P.J., Jimenez, J.L., Chemically-Resolved Aerosol Volatility Measurements from Two Megacity Field Studies. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, Submitted, November, 2008

  19. K.S. Docherty, et al., Characterization of Ambient Southern California Submicron Organic Aerosol using Positive Matrix Factorization of High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectra. In preparation.

  20. Pratt, K.A., J.E. Mayer, J.C. Holecek, R.C. Moffet, R.O. Sanchez, T.P. Rebotier, H. Furutani, M. Gonin, K. Fuhrer, Y. Su, S. Guazzotti, and K.A. Prather. Development and Characterization of an Aircraft Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer. Analytical Chemistry, ASAP DOI: 10.1021/ac801942r Paper (January 28, 2009)

  21. Gentner, D.R., R.A. Harley, A.M. Miller, and A.H. Goldstein. Diurnal and Seasonal Variability of Gasoline-Related Volatile Organic Compound Emission in Riverside, California. Environmental Science and Technology, 43(12), 4247-4252, 2009. DOI: 10.1021/es9006228 Paper (June 15, 2009)

  22. Stone, E.A., J. Zhou, D.C. Snyder, A.P. Rutter, M. Mieritz, and J.J. Schaur. A Comparison of Summertime Secondary Organic Aerosol Source Contributions at Contrasting Urban Locations. Environmental Science and Technology, 43(10), 3448-3454, 2009. DOI: 10.1021/es8025209 Paper (January 28, 2009)

  23. Pratt, K.A., L.E. Hatch, and K.A. Prather. Seasonal Volatility Dependence of Ambient Particle Phase Amines. Environmental Science and Technology, 43(14), 5276-5281, 2009. DOI: 10.1021/es803189n Paper (July 15, 2009)

  24. Eatough, D.J. and R. Farber. Apportioning Visibility Degradation to Sources of PM2.5 Using Positive Matrix Factorization. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Associateion, 59, 1092-1110, 2009. DOI: 10.3155/1047-3289.59.9.1092 Paper. (September 1, 2009)

  25. Stone, E.A., C.J. Hedman, R.J. Sheesley, M.M. Shafer,and J.J. Schauer. Investigating the Chemical Nature of Humic-like Substances (HULIS) in North American Atmospheric Aerosols by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Atmospheric Environment, 43(27), 4205-4213, 2009. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.05.030 Paper (September 1, 2009)

  26. Gentner, D.R., A.M. Miller, and A.H. Goldstein. Seasonal Variability in Anthropogenic Halocarbon Emissions. Environmental Science and Technology, 44(14), 5377-5382, 2010. DOI: 10.1021/es1005362 Paper (July 15, 2010)

  27. Sheesley, R.J., J.T. DeMinter, M. Meiritz, D.C. Snyder, and J.J. Schauer. Temporal Trends in Motor Vehicle and Secondary Organic Tracers Using in Situ Methylation Thermal Desorption GCMS. Environmental Science and Technology, 44(24), 9398-9404, 2010. DOI: 10.1021/es102301t Paper (December 15, 2010)

SOAR AAAR 2008 Presentations

SOAR AAAR 2007 Presentations

SOAR AAAR-IAC 2006 Presentations

Results of Previous Studies for the LA Area

Participating Groups and Their Measurements

PI Institution People during Field Study Instrumentation and Measurements Power (A @ 110 V, unless marked otherwise) Approx. Size
(L x W x H, in. unless marked otherwise)
Paul Ziemann UC-Riverside Paul Ziemann
  • Thermal Desorption Particle Beam Mass Spectrometer (TDPBMS)
  • Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS)
  • Ozone Monitor
  • NOx Monitor
  • Already in use Already in place
    Jose-Luis Jimenez CU-Boulder (some of) Alex Huffmann, Pete DeCarlo, Dara Salcedo, Katja Dzepina, Allison Aiken, Joel Kimmel, Ken Docherty, Qi Zhang, and Jose-Luis Jimenez
  • Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (ToF-AMS)
  • Thermal-Denuder ToF-AMS (TD-ToF-AMS)
  • EI High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS)
  • Grimm 1.109 Optical Particle Counter
  • TSI DustTrak
  • TSI Nano-SMPS
  • Water Condensation Particle Counter (WCPC)
  • Aerosol Particle Mass Analyzer (APM, on loan from Kanomax, Inc.)
  • Atomizer, TSI DMA, and CPC 3010 for AMS Calibration
  • Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS)
  • DMT Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter (with John Ogren at NOAA CMDL)
  • Nephelometer (with John Ogren at NOAA CMDL)
  • Radiance Research Nephelometer (NOAA CMDL) (maybe)
  • PSAP (NOAA CMDL) (maybe)
  • 6




















    22x18x72 (rack)




    Doug Worsnop Aerodyne Research Megan Northway and Achim Trimborn. Maybe Hacene Boudries.
  • VUV High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (VUV-HR-ToF-AMS)
  • MAAP for Black Carbon
  • 6


    Mike Hannigan CU-Boulder Mike Hannigan (for set up) and Ingrid Ulbrich (w/ Jose's group)
  • PM2.5 sampler
  • 1248x48x64
    Jamie Schauer UW-Madison David Snyder
  • Medium volume PM2.5 sampler for daily samples for GC-MS organic speciation
  • Possibly new LCMSMS and GC/LC-high Resolution MS analyses on collected samples
  • Semi-continuous Sunset Labs EC/OC Analyzer
  • 7-channel aethalometer
  • Real time Hg speciation sampler
  • >45








    Costas Sioutas USC Phil Fine and Bhabesh Chakrabarti
  • Ultrafine Aerosol Concentrator for the TDPBMS
  • (Maybe) Nano-MOUDI
  • Ultrafine Particle Mass Monitor
  • (Maybe) Hi-vol Impactor Sampler for Ultrafine PM
  • 40




    Delbert Eatough Brigham Young University ?
  • Dual oven sunset EC/OC.
  • Dionex IC for ions.
  • Conventional TEOM
  • Aethalometer
  • Will bring his own trailer
    Rodney Weber Georgia Institute of Science and Technology Rick Peltier and Amy Sullivan?
  • PILS-WSOC (Water-Soluble Organic Carbon)
  • Hi-vol sampler
  • "New speciation measurement"
  • 18




    Allen Goldstein (pending final approval from CARB) UC-Berkeley Brent Williams (TAG), Angela Miller (VOCs), and Megan McKay
  • Thermal Desorption Aerosol GC-MS (TAG)
  • GC-MS for VOC analysis (~70 VOCs)
  • Carbon Monoxide (CO) analyzer
  • Ozone monitor
  • Basic meteorology (T, RH, Wind speed and direction, Total or PA radiation)

  • 40'x10'x15'

    Suzanne Hering (pending final approval from CARB, ICAT) Aerosol Dynamics, Inc. Nathan Kriesberg and Suzanne Hering (7/11-7/18, intermittent after)
  • Water CPC
  • Nano-Water CPC
  • 1 or 2 Butanol CPCs
  • Accessory particle monitors
  • 15A 24x24x18 (approx.)
    Kim Prather (pending final approval from CARB) UC-San Diego Kim Prather, Laura Shields, and Sharon Qin
  • Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) (200 nm-3 um)
  • Ultrafine ATOFMS (UF-ATOMS)
  • Aerodynamic Particle Sizer
  • Nephelometer
  • 7-Channel Aethelometer
  • TEOM
  • CO, NOx analyzers
  • CCN
  • Will likely bring a small ARB trailer

    Janet Arey and Roger Atkinson UC-Riverside Janet Arey, Roger Atkinson, Lin Wang, Katie Gallagher, Noriko Nishino, Bill Harger, and Bill Long
  • Filter + GC-MS analysis for PAHs, Nitro-PAHs, and PAH reaction products
  • 12 48x48x64
    Dennis Fitz UCR CE-CERT ?
  • Evaluation of PM bulk sampling artifacts
  • 406'x6'
    Phil Hopke Clarkson University ?
  • Hi-vol filter/PUF sampler
  • Chemical analysis/oligomers
  • 1848x48x64
    Mark Thiemans UC-San Diego ?
  • PM2.5 sampler
  • Sulfate and nitrate isotope measurement
  • ?48x48x64
    Rafael Villalobos-Pietrini National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) Omar Amador-Muñoz, Leonel Hernández-Mena, Alejandro Frías-Villegas, and Rafael Villalobos-Pietrini
  • Particle mutagenicity bioassays
  • n/an/a

    Filter-based sampler schedules

    PIInstitution Sampler Sampling schedule Species Measurement Post-sampling analysis
    Janet Arey/
    Rafael Villalobos-Pietrini
    HiVol sampler with PUF modification 12 hour sampling periods
    times TBD
    Nitro PAH
    Mutagenicity studies on filter/PUF extracts
    Dennis Fitz UC-Riverside, CE-CERT Various samplers, various filter types 24 hour sampling periods
    12 a.m. to 12 a.m.
    Filter sampling artifacts/bulk organics ?
    Mike Hannigan U. Colorado at Boulder Moudi sampler impacting on aluminum substrates 24 hour sampling periods
    (maybe shorter pending initial analysis)
    Organics, general IC analysis
    Phil Hopke
    c/o Prather group
    Clarkson University HiVol sampler with PUF modification flexible sampling periods
    times TBD
    Organic polymers/peroxides Organics analysis
    Suzanne Paulson UC-Los Angeles PM2.5 sampler ? Oxidized, labile organic species/peroxides HPLC
    Jaime Schauer/
    Mike Hannigan
    U. Wisconsin at Madison/
    U. Colorado at Boulder
    PM2.5 samplers (5), collection on quartz filters
    5 a.m. to 10 a.m.
    10 a.m. to 3 p.m.
    3 p.m. to 8 p.m.
    8 p.m. to 5 a.m.
    med. volume with 24 hour samples (10 a.m. to 10 a.m.)
    EC/OC will sample on 45 minute time interval
    ? Analysis by IC, GC
    Mark Thiemens UC-San Diego HiVol Sampler 12 hour sampling periods:
    sunrise to sunset and
    sunset to sunrise
    Isotopes of sulfur and nitrogen ?
    Rodney Weber Georgia Tech HiVol Sampler 24 hour sampling periods:
    time TBD
    ? Size exclusion chromatography
    Paul Ziemann/
    Constantinos Sioutas
    Temperature programmed TDPBMS/
    Coordinate samples with Schauer Volatile aerosol fraction N/A

    Other Participants, Studies, and Data

    FTP Site for Information Sharing

    We would like to start sharing data, as soon as they are available, through an FTP site. In particular Megan McKay of the Goldstein group will start posting meteorological and gas-phase data from her group in the next couple of days, and will update them every three days.For the time being we will use an FTP site at CU. If the total data volume becomes larger than a few hundred MB, we may need to switch to a commercial server that Nathan Kreisberg has looked into.

    To be able to upload or download data, you'll need to download an ftp client. Winscp can be found at: Then you can set up a new connection to: with the username and password that Jose sent to the e-mail list on July 14, 2005 (everything lowercase, the server is case-sensitive). In there you will see a SOAR_2005 folder, and Jose created a folder for each group. You can create as many subfolders as you want in your folder. Please don't upload massive datasets, but rather simpler time series at this point. Ideally all data would be loaded in two ways: as ASCII (space or comma-delimited) and as plots in PDF. If possible, paste the plots into powerpoint, and then print into PDF with two slides per page. This format is easy to see and compact. Please also put a Readme.txt file in your main directory with a brief description of the data, and the info on the contact person for questions on the data.

    SOAR/UC Riverside Logistical Information (for future reference)

    Accommodations at UCR

    Accommodations for study participants are available through the UCR Extension Center's International Village, which offers 1-3 and some 5 bedroom student-living style apartments that are located just off of the main campus. Occupancy rates are $49.00/night for single occupancy and $26.00/person/night for occupancy of two or more with a $200.00 refundable deposit and an application fee of $70.00 per person. Completion of a temporary-housing application is required and early reservations are suggested. For more information, contact:

    Citra Schwabe
    International Residence Center Coordinator
    UC Riverside Extension
    1200 University Ave. Rm. 232
    Riverside, CA 92507
    Phone: (951) 827-1708
    Fax: (951) 827-5796

    Mailing address

    If you need to have packages delivered to you during the study, the shipping address for the Air Pollution Research Center is as follows:

    Air Pollution Research Center
    c/o (your name here)
    201 Fawcett Lab
    University of California
    Riverside, California 92521

    Maps and locations of some important resources in and around Riverside

    For a map of useful locations on and immediately surrounding the UCR campus, click here
    For a map of useful locations in nearby Riverside, click here

    On-campus parking at UCR

    If you have a UC faculty or staff parking permit you can use that here for free. Otherwise you can buy a monthly parking permit for a minimum of $32 (starting when you arrive not at the beginning of the month), weekly permits for $16, or daily permits for $6. Daily permits can be obtained from automated kiosks located throughout campus. Weekly and monthly permits must be obtained from parking services (building #272 on UCR map). If you would like to park near the labs, you must buy a blue lot parking permit (available for $40). When parking near the labs, please park ONLY on the North side of Paul's lab or East of T-14. DO NOT park South of the brown trailers or West of Paul's lab as you will eventually be forced to move your vehicle. If no spaces are available near the labs, please park in the lot designated on your parking permit. Also, your apartment is about a 15 minute walk away.

    Off-site storage of shipping containers

    There will be a limited amount of space (~1000 cu. ft.) available off-site for storing shipping containers during the SOAR campaign. We will be reserving the majority of this space for those groups that expressed a need for off-site storage and any additional space will be available on a first-come-first-served basis. The storage facility is located approximately 3 miles from the UCR campus and a map to this facility can be found by clicking here

    Sampling site and lab diagrams/layouts

  • For a satellite image of sampling site with locations of labs, CARB trailers, and sampling platform click here
  • For diagram of trailer locations relative to Ziemann Lab click here
  • For instrument layout in Ziemann lab click here
  • For instrument layout in T-14 click here
  • For sampling platform layout click here
  • Standardization of time stamps and clock synchonization

    Suzanne Hering is proposing that we standardize the time stamps for all data from all participants to be in Pacific Standard Time (PST). This is one hour less than the watch time, which is Pacific Daylight Savings Time (PDT). Part of the reason is that the data from the CARB and AQMD sites is always in PST. So unless anyone has a problem, we should all share data in PST. Also please list "PST" (or PDT or UTC or whatever you decide to report on) in the label for your time data, so that it is clear what convention you are using. This issue may seem trivial but it causes extensive confusion when dealing from data from multiple groups. There have even been papers published where the data from different instruments in the same plot were not actually in the same time base!

    One more issue that we wanted to bring up is clock synchronization during the study. As you may know, most computer clocks are only specified to be accurate to 1 part in 10000, or about 9 sec per day. So left unchecked, a computer clock can easily drift several minutes (sometimes more) over the duration of the study. For the instruments that have time resolution of minutes or so, this can be an important issue. So we would like to encourage everyone to establish some system to synchronize their clocks with a known good clock, preferably via the internet. One such utility that our group has used for 5 years is "dimension4." It syncs with a variety of atomic clocks via the internet (any atomic clock will do for our needs), and it is freely downloadable. Also importantly, we have extensively tested that it can be run in the background of an acquisition computer using Labview or our AMS software, and it does not interfere with the acquisition. You can download it at: If you don't want to install this in your instrument computers, another option would be for you to install it in your laptop, and then modify the instrument computer manually while comparing to the laptop.

    Obtaining gas cylinders at UCR

    Gas cylinders can be ordered from the UCR storehouse. For more information on ordering cylinders and billing issues, please contact:

    Judy Hodge
    UCR Materials Management (Storehouse)
    (951) 827-5542

    Weekly meetings

    We will have weekly science meetings each Thursday at 2:00 p.m., beginning July 21st. At the first of these meetings, we will discuss a variety of outstanding logistical issues including how to organize the scientific meetings. Main goals of subsequent meetings will be to familiarize everyone with the array of instrumentation and measurements involved in the campaign and to report and discuss preliminary data from each group. Students from each group will be asked to present on a rotating basis. As we'll probably have too many people for the APRC conference room across the street, we'll meet in room 301 in the Science Laboratories I building down the hill (building #416 on the campus map).